ONE MONTH / ONE ENGLISH WORD

 

octobre 2019: 

3-1- late

ONE  MONTH / ONE  ENGLISH  ETYMOLOGY

Published  by Philippe POTEL-BELNER, on the site  www.langue-et-histoire.com, on the 1st of October 2019.

 

 

outline:

1- analysis of the phonems

2- analysis of the English linguistic  paradigms of "late"

3- analysis of the British area paradigm

4- analysis of the worldwide paradigm

5-conclusions

 

 

In english, "late"  have  5 meanings:

1- what  does  not come rapidly.

2- what has just arrived before = recently

3- what is far on in the day

4- dead, for a person who has passed away.

5- what has arrived  in the past (formal use), example: late of Paris = who leaved in Paris before.

 

 

First of all, we have to analyse the Vedic  phonetics  in late:

 

The phonem  /L/  has 2 origins:

L1- a prononciation of the guttural Ṛ  (rolled or trilled "R").

L2-  an evolution of the reduplication of the dental phonem  [nt]  >  nt-nt  > nt-tl  > tl  > l.

 

Generally,  /L/1  expresses  the  "assemblage", that is to say  "what makes possible to continue".

/L/2- often, it expresses  a movement  forward. Formerly:  atta or atuta, then  > atla / adla  or  atula  > alla.

 

The  phonem  /ta/ has generally 3 meanings: 

T1- it is the dental phonem of destruction / stop / immobility / negation.

T2-  "what  makes to go forward", because of the apheresis  of  ata  >  ta.

It is often used  as an agentive  element  (see  french or sanskrit). 

T3- very close to T2,  /t/  is also an element expressing  an intensification or a direction:  upward, excellently, etc... (see  skr:  adhi, ati, etc...).  The combinations of movement elements  are numerous:  atta / atti / atsa / antsa / etc... My hypothesis is that it is the results of a reduplication of the dental phonem,  so:  atuta  = atta.

atuta   as a former  intensifying  element  is supported  by  the traces  in French:  "à toute", is a locution  meaning  "intensively" .  Moreover, I have traced  this locution in the Gaulish language. See, for example, my works about  the  "Plomb  du Larzac", one of the main texts in Gaulish.

 

 

 

The English linguistic paradigms of "late":

 

The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology  mentions  a XIV century  meaning:  "belonging to an advanced stage"  (therefore, we can  add a 5th sense of "late" in English).

The ODEE  makes a link  between  "late" and  these old words:

 goth: *lats = lazy, indolent

common Germanic: *lataz = slow, sluggish

Moreover, the ODEE  links  late  to last3 =  following all the others, coming at the end.

 

 

 

 

The British area  paradigm  of  "late":

Why  examine the English  area paradigm ?

The present languages  are a synthesis of the numerous languages and dialects that were spoken in the past.  Many of these dialects are unknown because no written trace have been producted, therefore,  in many cases, the present language is the only available information; particularly the popular language. Unfortunately, the popular language is less studied  than the academic one. ..

 

1-  L1 + T2  = L / Ṛ + agentive  /at/ ats/ = what makes  to assemble, what makes to succeed, what makes to initiate a  process, what makes  to rest, what makes to regain one's  strength ...

L

Engl: a lass = a girl

FR/engl: une laisse /a leash

FR/engl: LACER / to lace

Engl: a latch (to close the door)

Engl: lithe = agile

old welsh: lleth = feeble

welsh: llety = lodging, inn

welsh:  llan =  yard

welsh: llaesu = to slacken

welsh: llaid = mud, mire

R

FR/englrace = a group of men.

FR/engl: RESTER/to rest

Old Englrand  = brink, bank, etc...

Engl: a ranch = hut or house in the country

Engl: root

Engl: rut (e.g. of stag)

Engl: to rot = to decompose

 

 

2- L1 + T1 = L / Ṛ + negation  /nta/ nda / nna/  =   what does not make to assemble, etc...

L

Engl: last = remainder

Engl: litter (rubbish)  <  LIT + agentive –er)

old welsh = lled = death; llas = was killed

R

FR/engl:  retraite /  retirement  (RET+IR)

Engl: to rid

FR:  un reste = a remain, a remainder

 

With  a reduplication/intensification of  Ṛ:

FR/engl: ÉRADIQUER/ to eradicate  <  RRa-ndi-Kat.

 

 

3- L2 + T2 =  L  (for alla / atla)  +  ta  (for atta)  =   a combination of phonems  of the movement  = intensification of the movement   >  what makes  to  go  forward / upward /  faster / etc...

only L

engl:  to let

engl: to last = to go on

welsh:  llaeth = milk

 

 

4-L2 + T1 = L (for alla / atla) + negation  /nta/ nda / nna/ =  what does not  make (nta)  to go forward  (ata).

only L

old english: to let = to hinder (see  the tennis term)

 

 

5-L1 + T3 =  L / Ṛ  + atta  / atsa  (upward / excellently / toward  the liberation) = what  assembles  faraway  or  upward or intensively.

This combination of phonems  is also the linguistic paradigms of  "a road"  and  "a mountain".

L

engl: a ladder

engl: a lad = a boy, a friend  (linguistic paradigm of "man":  who makes  the World  to go intensively  forward; in opposition to the "feminine" part of the Universe)

engl: to lead

engl:  ledge =what juts out  (<  *lediia)

Welsh: llun = picture  (<*llunt)

English: light 1 = luminosity; light 2 = opposite to heavy   (light   <  L-yata)

welsh: llathr = bright  <  llath+ agentive  -r)

welsh: llaes =long,trailing

welsh/ engl: lot = many

Turkish/engl: lens  (optical term)

gaelicleas = advantage

gaelic: leis = thigh

gaelic: las = kindle

gaelic: lan = full =*lant

R

engl/FR: a road/ une route

engl: a rush

FR/ engl: radio

FR/engl: a race = a sprint

With  a reduplication/intensification of  Ṛ (?):

engl: to arise

welsh: ras = race

old welsh: rhath = mound

engl: to run

welshrhan = fate, destiny

engl: to ride

engl: red  (this is the color of  warming and embers, what  makes to assemble upward)

old welshrhiaidd = noble, royal

FR/engl: a raid

palaeohibernian: rout = distance

palaeohibernian: rith 1 = a ford; rith 2 = a running, a course

palaeohibernian:  reith = to run

 

 

The worldwide linguistic paradigms of "late":

Why examine the worldwide paradigm ?

For the same reasons than the English paradigm. Moreover, because of the unique origin of the worldwide languages, to study a language by means of worldwide comparisons, should make us to understand some pronunciations  or evolutions which are nowadays impossible to understand.

We have to compare English words to some African or Asian words, which are, after all, closer   than  linguistics  says. Linguists  studied  only the superficial aspect  in order to simplify,  but the language question  is immensely complex  because  of its length, its multiplicity  and lack of documents.

 

 

1-  L1 + T2  = L / Ṛ + agentive  /at/ ats/ = what makes  to assemble, what makes to succeed, what makes to initiate a  process, what makes  to rest, what makes to regain one's  strength ...

L

greek:  hê Lêthê  =  the river in the underworld

Syrian Arab: lâṣa = mud  (see welsh: llaid)

 Syrian Arab: lațaḥ = to pack together

FR: une liasse = a bundle

latin: lutum = mud

R

FR: une rade = a harbour

allrat = parliament, assembly

Turkish / arabicreis = chief

ethiopian/arabic: ras = chief

French dialect in Ardèche: une rase = a ditch

French dialect in Ardèche: une rate = a sort of potato.

Turkishrazw = agreed

latin: reses = idle, inactive, RESIDO = to collapse, to fade away

Turkish: rwiza = agreement

 

 

2- L1 + T1 = L / Ṛ + negation  /nta/ nda / nna/  =   what does not make to assemble, etc...

L

FRLAISSER  1= to leave, to abandon

FR: laid = ugly

Syrian Arab: lawța'  = to waste one's time

Turkish: lesh =  a decaying carcass  <  Ṛatsa <  Ṛa-tta = Ṛatna

R

FR: retard  = lateness  <  RET  + agentive -ard

FR: RATER  = to fail

FR: RETIRER  (RET+IR)= to take off

Syrian Arab: razaḥ = not to be able to stand up (see goth: *lats = lazy, indolent)

skr: RAHa (*RAHNA)= to quit, to abandon, rahita = abandoned

Turkish: rötar = lateness

Turkish:  ret  = refusal

With  a reduplication/intensification of  Ṛ (?):

FR: ARRÊTER <  ṚṚa-tt / ts = to stop

note: A French expression:  "en rade = broken down"  is:  an (negation)  + Ṛ + agentive  (ad).

 

 

3- L2 + T2 =  L  (for alla / atla)  +  ta  (for atta)  =   a combination of phonems  of the movement  = intensification of the movement   >  what makes  to  go  forward / upward /  faster / etc...

only L

FR: lait = milk  (as every food,  and much more milk, it makes to go forward, to grow up)

esp:   leche =milk, etc...

FR: LAISSER 2 = to let, to allow.

 

 

 

4-L2 + T1 = L (for alla / atla) + negation  /nta/ nda / nna/ =  what does not  make (nta)  to go forward  (ata).

only L

latin: letum = death

FR: lent = slow

 

 

5-L1 + T3 =  L / Ṛ  + atta  / atsa  (upward / excellently / toward  the liberation) = what  assembles  faraway  or  upward or intensively.

This combination of phonems  is also the linguistic paradigms of  "a road"  and  "a mountain".

L

FR/Syrian Arab/ engl:  LANCER/ laḥash/ to launch  = to throw, to initiate

Syrian Arab:  lazz = to be pleasant; laddad = to enjoy oneself

Syrian Arab: lass = to eat greedily

Syrian Arab: laḥn = a melody  (music assembles upward,like every sound)  = *lahnd

Hebrew: lédâ = childbirth

FR: liesse = jubilation

Turkish: ladin = spruce

old Fr: let = large

old FR: LACIER = to pick up

R

Syrian Arab: rațț = to be shaking, trembling  (this is the symbole of the liberation)

Syrian Arab: rsha = a rope  to draw water out of a well

old FR: ren =  thing, creature  =  *rent

old FR: rené = kingdom, reign   = *rendé

old FR: rese = raid

 (we can add the phonem  of the assemblage /K/  >  hebrew:  katsê = extremity)

 

 

 

conclusion 1

1- late = what  does  not come rapidly.

<  What does not assemble  (2- L1 + T1 = L / Ṛ + negation  /nta/ nda / nna/)

Compare to:

welsh: llaesu = to slacken

Syrian Arab: lawța'  = to waste one's time

FR: retard  = lateness  (RET + agentive –ard)

 

 

conclusion 2

2- late = what has just arrived before = recently

< what makes  to assemble, because  what has just arrived before  is 'assembled '  or close to the present or to a person.  (1-  L1 + T2  = L / Ṛ + agentive  /at/ ats/ = what makes  to assemble, what makes to succeed, what makes to initiate a  process, what makes  to rest, what makes to regain one's  strength ... )

 Compare to:

Syrian Arab: lațaḥ = to pack together

 

 

conclusion 3

3- late = what is far on in the day

< what makes to assemble upward  (5-L1 + T3 =  L / Ṛ  + atta  / atsa  (upward / excellently / toward  the liberation) = what  assembles  faraway  or  upward or intensively)

 

 

Compare to:

welshllaes =long,trailing

gaelic:  leas = advantage

 

 

 

conclusion 4

4- late = dead, for a person who has passed away.

<  what does not make the assemblage

(2- L1 + T1 = L / Ṛ + negation  /nta/ nda / nna/  =   what does not make to assemble, etc...

AND

< what does not go forward

 4-L2 + T1 = L (for alla / atla) + negation  /nta/ nda / nna/ =  what does not  make (nta)  to go forward  (ata))

 

Compare to:

Engllast = remainder

Engl: litter (rubbish)  <  LIT + agentive –er)

old welsh lled = death; llas = was killed

FR:  LAISSER  1= to leave, to abandon

Turkishlesh =  a decaying carcass  <  Ṛatsa <  Ṛa-tta = Ṛatna

latinletum = death

 

 

conclusion 5

5- late = what has arrived  in the past (formal use), example: late of Paris = who leaved in Paris before.

<  What does not assemble  (2- L1 + T1 = L / Ṛ + negation  /nta/ nda / nna/) = to disassemble

 

Compare to:

FR/englÉRADIQUER/ to eradicate  <  RRa-nd-Kat.

FR:  LAISSER  1= to leave, to abandon

 

 

 

 

 

 =  reconstructed by linguists

 

palaeohibernian  =  also  called  "old Irish".  I  intensively doubt  that  all these  "old Irish texts "  originate from Ireland. 

 

bibliography

ODEE = The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology

GED  = a Gothic Etymological Dictionary, Winfred P. LEHMANN,  Leiden, E.J.BRILL, 1986